Processing and Visualisation of 4D Georadar Data

  Data Animation
GPR links
Software used
Seismic Unix
Related sites
Borden Experiment
University of Kiel
                              Diploma thesis by Immo Trinks, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany, 1999.

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Description of the experiment

During a project on preferential flow paths at the Department of Geophysics at the University of Kiel, Germany, a time-lapse infiltration experiment has been carried out in a full scale model. 
The aim of the experiment was to map water movements in the shallow subsurface in high spatial and temporal resolution under controlled circumstances.
A comparable experiment was conducted in 1991 in Borden, Canada.
Our experiment differs from the "Borden" -  experiment in a higher sampling interval (1 cm instead of 5 cm inline and 4 cm instead of 100 cm crossline), the use of water instead of trichloroethylene as infiltration fluid, a dry sand body instead of a water saturated one, a smaller amount of spilled fluid (65 litres instead of 770), a faster repetition rate of the measuring cycles (30 minutes instead of 8 hours) and a smaller length of total measuring cycles (30 minutes instead of 8 hours) and a smaller length of total measuring time (7 instead of 914 hours).

The experiment was conducted at the field laboratory of the Institute of Geophysics and the Institute for Water Management and Landscape Ecology of the University of Kiel. The test site consisted of a sand box (surface: 7 m x 5 m; base: 5 m x 3 m; depth: 2.0 m) filled homogeneously with sand. To protect the site against effects of the weather it was isolated with a plastic foil and sheltered with a tent. At the base of the box a layer of 40 cm of gravel was included to collect the outflow. Immediately above this layer of gravel in a depth of 2 m a horizontal lying electrode lattice with 220 electrodes was situated for geoelectric measurements.


Tap water was pumped with an electrical pump from a water reservoir via a small plastic tube (diameter 1.1 cm) into the centre of the survey area. The tube was buried in the sand 5 cm below the surface. On an area 3 m x 1.2 m wide 30 GPR profiles were measured with 500 and 900 MHz GSSI antennas. Both antennas were mounted on a motor driven sledge and pulled with constant speed. Positioning took place with a punctured tape measure and a photoelectric barrier. The sampling grid was 1 cm inline, 4 cm crossline and 470 samples in time with a sampling rate of 0.119 ns.In the beginning a complete data volume consisting of 30 parallel profiles was recorded over the dry sand volumeer the dry sand volume. Afterwards 11 further data sets were measured continuously in time with a steadily increasing amount of infiltrated water. The registration of one data set required in average 23 minutes. Within 5 hours approximately 65 litres of water were infiltrated. 

To visualise the 3D data volumes of the 500 MHz antenna animations were created:


Please contact me if interested in the following files:

Diploma thesis in German (Abstract in English)

PowerPoint Presentation given on the International Conference on GPR in Archaeology in Nara, Japan (February 17th 2001)
Immo Trinks
Bullard Laboratories
Madingley Road
Cambridge CB3 0EZ
United Kingdom

phone: +44 (0)1223 337098
MY_LASTNAME is trinks